Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites (BERMS)



Amiro, B.D., Barr, A.G., Barr, J.G., Black, T.A., Bracho, R., Brown, M., Chen, J., Clark, K.L., et al. 2010. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America. Journal of Geophysical Research 115 (G4): G00K02.

Amiro, B.D., Barr, A.G., Black, T.A., Iwashita, H., Klujn, N., McCaughey, J.H., Morgenstern, K., Murayama, S., Nesic, Z., Orchansky, A.L., and Saigusa, N. 2006. Carbon, energy and water fluxes at mature and disturbed forest sites, Saskatchewan, Canada. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 136: 237-251.

Amiro, B.D., MacPherson, J.I., Desjardins, R.L., Chen, J.M., and Liu, J. 2003. Post-fire carbon dioxide fluxes in the western Canadian boreal forest: evidence from towers, aircraft and remote sensing. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 115: 91-107.

Anochikwa, C.I, van der Kamp, G., and Barbour, S.L. 2012. Interpreting pore-water pressure changes induced by water table fluctuations and mechanical loading due to soil moisture changes. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 49: 357-366.

Arain M.A., Black, T.A., Barr, A.G., Griffis, T.J., Morgenstern, K., and Nesic, Z., 2003. Year round observations of the energy and water vapour fluxes above a boreal black spruce forest. Hydrological Processes 17: 3581-3600.

Arain, M.A., Black, T.A., Barr, A.G., Jarvis, P.G., Massheder, J.M., Verseghy, D.L., and Nesic, Z. 2002. Effects of seasonal and interannual climate variability on net ecosystem productivity of boreal deciduous and conifer forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32: 878-891.

Baldocchi, D., Kelliher, F.M., Black, T.A., and Jarvis, P. 2000. Climate and vegetation controls on boreal zone energy exchange. Global Change Biology 6: 69-83.

Baldocchi, D.D., Vogel, C.A., and Hall, B. 1997. Seasonal variation of energy and water vapor exchange rates above and below a boreal jack pine forest canopy. Journal of Geophysical Research 102(D24): 28939-28951.

Balland, V., Bhatti, J., Errington, R., Castonguay, M., and Arp, P.A. 2006. Modeling snowpack and soil temperature and moisture conditions in a jack pine, black spruce and aspen forest stand in central Saskatchewan (BOREAS SSA). Canadian Journal of Soil Science 86: 203-217.

Barr, A.G., Black, T.A., Hogg, E.H., Griffis, T.J., Morgenstern, K., Kljun, N., Theede, A., and Nesic, Z. 2007. Climatic controls on the carbon and water balances of a boreal aspen forest, 1994-2003. Global Change Biology 13: 561-576.

Barr, A.G., Black, T.A., Hogg, E.H., Kljun, N., Morgenstern, K., Nesic, Z. 2004. Inter-annual variability in the leaf area index of a boreal aspen-hazelnut forest in relation to net ecosystem production. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 126, 237-255.

Barr, A.G., Black, T.A., and McCaughey, H. 2009. Climatic and phenological controls of the carbon and energy balances of three contrasting boreal forest ecosystems in western Canada. Phenology of Ecosystem Processes.

Barr, A.G., Morgenstern, K., Black, T.A., McCaughey, J.H., Nesic, Z.  2006.  Surface energy balance closure by the eddy-covariance method above three boreal forest stands and implications for the measurement of CO2 flux.  Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 140: 322-337.

Barr, A.G., van der Kamp, G., Black, T.A., McCaughey, J.H., and Nesic, Z. 2012. Energy balance closure at the BERMS flux towers in relation to the water balance of the White Gull Creek watershed 1999-2009. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 153: 3-13.

Barr, A.G., van der Kamp, G., Schmidt, R., and Black, T.A. 2000. Monitoring the moisture balance of a boreal aspen forest using a deep groundwater piezometer. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 102:13-24.

Bergeron, O., Margolis, H.A., Black, T.A., Coursolle, C., Dunn, A.L., Barr, A.G., and Wofsy, S.C. 2006. Comparison of carbon dioxide fluxes over three boreal black spruce forests in Canada. Global Change Biology 13: 89-107.

Bernier, P.Y., Bartlett, P., Black, T.A., Barr, A., Kljun, N., and McCaughey, J.H. 2006. Drought constraints on transpiration and canopy conductance in mature aspen and jack pine stands. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 140: 64-78.

Bernier, P.Y., Lavigne, M.B., Hogg, E.H., and Trofymow, J.A. 2007. Estimating branch production in trembling aspen, Douglas-fir, jack pine, black spruce, and balsam fir. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 1024-1033.

Betts, A.K., Ball, J.H., Barr, A.G., Black, T.A., McCaughey, J.H., and Viterbo, P. 2006. Assessing land-surface-atmosphere coupling in the ERA-40 reanalysis with boreal forest data. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 140: 365-382.

Bhatti, J.S., Errington, R.C., Bauer, I.E., and Hurdle, P.A. 2006. Carbon stock trends along forested peatland margins in central Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 86: 321-333.

Bisbee, K.E., Gower, S.T., Norman, J.M., Nordheim, E.V. 2001. Environmental controls on ground cover species composition and productivity in a boreal black spruce forest. Oecologia 129(2): 261-270.

Black, T.A., den Hartog, G., Neumann, H.H., Blanken, P.D., Yang, P.C., Russell,.C., Nesic, Z., Less,X., Chen, S.G., Staebler, R., and Novak, M.D. 1996. Annual cycles of water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes in and above a boreal aspen forest. Global Change Biology 2: 219-229.

Black, T.A., W.J. Chen, A.G. Barr, Z. Chen, M.A. Arain, Z. Nesic, E.H. Hogg, H.H. Neumann and P.C. Yang. 2000. Increased carbon sequestration by a boreal deciduous forest in years with a warm spring. Geophysical Research Letters 29(9): 1471-1274.

Blanken, P.D., T.A. Black, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, P. C. Yang, Z. Nesic and X. Lee. 2001. The seasonal water and energy exchange above and wthin a boreal aspen forest. Journal of Hydrology. 245(1-4): 118-136.

Blanken, P.D., Black, T.A., Yang, P.C., Neumann, H.H., Nesic, Z., Staebler, R., den Hartog, G., Novak, M.D., and Lee, X. 1997. Energy balance and canopy conductance of a boreal aspen forest: Partitioning overstory and understory components. Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 28915-28927.

Bonan, G.B., Davis, K.J., Baldocchi, D., Fitzjarrald, D., and Neumann, H. 1997. Comparison of the NCAR LSM1 land surface model with BOREAS aspen and jack pine tower fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research 102(D24): 29065-29075.

Bond-Lamberty, B., Wang, C.K., Gower, S.T. 2004. A global relationship between the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of soil respiration? Global Change Biology 10: 1756-1766.  

Brooks, J.R., Flanagan, L.B., Varney, G.T., and Ehleringer, J.R. 1997. Vertical gradients in photosynthetic gas exchange characteristics and refixation of respired CO2 within boreal forest canopies. Tree Physiology 17: 1-12.

Brümmer, C., Black, T.A., Jassal, R.S., Grant, N.J., Spittlehouse, D.L., Chen, B., Nesic, Z., Amiro, B.D., et al. 2012. How climate and vegetation type influence evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in Canadian forest, peatland and grassland ecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 153: 14-30.

Chen, B., Coops, N.C., Fu, D., Margolis, H.A., Amiro, B.D., Barr, A.G., Black, T.A., Arain, M.A., et al. 2011. Assessing eddy-covariance flux tower location bias across the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network based on remote sensing and footprint modelling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151: 87-100.

Chen, J.M., Ju, W.M., Cihlar, J., Price, D., Liu, J., Chen, W, Pan, J., Black, A., and Barr, A. 2003. Spatial distribution of carbon sources and sinks in Canada's forests. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 55(2): 622-641.

Chen, L., Li, Y., Chen, F., Barr, A., Barlage, M., and Wan, B. 2016. The incorporation of an organic soil layer in the Noah-MP land surface model and its evaluation over a boreal aspen forest. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16: 8375–8387.

Chen, W., Black, T.A., Yang, P., Barr, A.G., Neumann, H.H., Nesic, Z., Novak, M.D., Eley, J., Ketler, R., and Cuenca, C. 1999.  Effects of Climatic Variability on the Annual Carbon Sequestration by a Boreal Aspen Forest. Global Change Biology, 5(1): 41-53.

Chun, K.P., Mamet, S.D., Metsaranta, J., Barr, A.G., Johnstone, J., and Wheater, H. 2017. A novel stochastic method for reconstructing daily precipitation times-series using tree-ring data from the western Canadian Boreal Forest. Dendrochronologia 44: 9-18.

Chun, K.P., Wheater, H.S., and Barr, A.G. 2014. A multivariate comparison of the BERMS flux-tower climate observations and Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) outputs. Journal of Hydrology 519: 1537-1550.

Cosh, M.H., Jackson, T.J., Smith, C., Toth, B., and Berg, A.A. 2013. Validating the BERMS in situ soil water content data record with a large scale temporary network. Vadose Zone Journal 12.

Davison, B., Pietroniro, A., Fortin, V., Leconte, R., Mamo, M., and Yau, M.K. 2016. What is missing from the prescription of hydrology for land surface schemes? Journal of Hydrometeorology 17: 2013-2039.

Dimitrov, D.D., Bhatti, J.S., and Grant, R.F. 2014. The transition zones (ecotone) between boreal forests and peatlands: Ecological controls on ecosystem productivity along a transition zone between upland black spruce forest and poor forested fen in central Saskatchewan. Ecological Modelling 291: 96-108.

Dimitrov, D.D., Bhatti, J.S., and Grant, R.F. 2014. The transition zones (ecotone) between boreal forests and peatlands: Modelling water table along a transition zone between upland black spruce forest and poor forested fen in central Saskatchewan. Ecological Modelling 274: 57-70.

Flanagan, L.B., Cai, T., Black, T.A., Barr, A.G., McCaughey, J.H., and Margolis, H.A. 2011. Measuring and modeling ecosystem photosynthesis and the carbon isotope composition of ecosystem-respired CO2 in three boreal coniferous forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 153: 156-176.

Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P., Guillevic, P., Zagolski, F., Demarez, V., Trichon, V., Deering, D., and Leroy, M. 1999. Modeling BRF and Radiation Regime of Boreal and Tropical Forest: I. BRF. Remote Sensing of Environment 68: 281-316.

Gaumont-Guay, D., Black, T.A., Barr, A.G., Griffis, T.J., Jassal, R.S., Krishnan, P., Grant, N., and Nesic, Z. 2014. Eight years of forest-floor CO2 exchange in a boreal black spruce forest: Spatial integration and long-term temporal trends. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 184: 25-35.

Gonsamo, A., and Chen, J.M. 2014. Continuous observation of leaf area index at Fluxnet-Canada sites. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 189-190: 168-174.

Goodbrand, A.R. 2013. Influence of lakes and peatlands on groundwater contribution to boreal streamflow (Master’s thesis). Available at

Goulden, M.L., Daube, B.C.; Fan, S.M., Sutton, D.J., Bazzaz, A., Munger, J.W., and Wofsy, S.C. 1997. Physiological responses of a black spruce forest to weather. Journal of Geophysical Research 102(D24):  28987-28996.

Goulden, M. L., and Crill, P.M. 1997. Automated measurements of CO2 exchange at the moss surface of a black spruce forest. Tree Physiology 17: 537-542.

Gower, S.T., Krankina, O., Olson, R.J., Apps, M., Linder, and Wang, C. 2001. Net primary production and carbon allocation patterns of boreal forest ecosystems. Ecological Applications 11: 1395-1411.[1395:NPPACA]2.0.CO;2

Gower, S.T., Vogel, J.G., Norman, J.M., Kucharik, C.J., Steele, S.J., Stow, T.K. 1997. Carbon distribution and aboveground net primary production in aspen, jack pine, and black spruce stands in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada.  Journal of Geophysical Research 102(D24): 29029-29041.

Grant, R.F., Barr, A.G., Black, T.A., Gaumont-Guay, D., Iwashita, H., Kidson, J., McCaughey, H., Morgenstern, K., Murayama, S., Nesic, Z., Saigusa, N., Shashkov, A., and Zha, T. 2007. Net ecosystem productivity of boreal jack pine stands regenerating from clearcutting under current and future climates. Global Chang Biology 13: 1423-1440.

Griffis, T.J., Black, T.A., Gaumont-Guay, D., Drewitt, G.B., Nesic, Z., Barr, A.G., Morgenstern, K. and Kljun, N. 2004. Seasonal variation and partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a southern boreal aspen forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 125: 207-223.

Griffis, T.J., Black, T.A., Morgenstern, K., Barr, A.G., Nesic, Z., Drewitt, G.B., Gaumont-Guay, D., McCaughey, J.H. 2003. Ecophysiological controls on the carbon balances of three southern boreal forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 117: 53-71.

Guillevic, P., and Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P. 1999. Modeling BRF and Radiation Regime of Boreal and Tropical Forest: II. PAR Regime. Remote Sensing of Environment 68: 317-340.

Hardy, J.P., Davis, R.E., Jordan, R., Li, X., Woodcock, C., Ni, W., and McKenzie, J.C. 1997. Snow ablation modeling at the stand scale in a boreal jack pine forest. Journal of Geophysical Research 102(D24):29397-29405.

Hill, T.C., Williams, M., Woodward, F.I., and Moncrieff, J.B. 2011. Constraining ecosystem processes from tower fluxes and atmospheric profiles. Ecological Applications 21: 1474-1489.

Hogan, J.M. 2006. Hydrologic behaviour and hydraulic properties of a patterned fen in Saskatchewan (Master’s thesis). Available at

Hogan, J.M, van der Kamp, G., Barbour, S.L., and Schmidt, R. 2006. Field methods for measuring hydraulic properties of peat deposits. Hydrological Processes 20: 3635-3649.

Hogg, E.H., Barr, A.G., and Black, T.A. 2013. A simple soil moisture index for representing multi-year drought impacts on aspen productivity in the western Canadian interior. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 178-179: 173-182.

Hogg, E.H., Saugier, B., Pontailler, J.Y., Black, T.A., Chen, W., Hurdle, P.A., and Wu, A. 2000. Responses of trembling aspen and hazelnut to vapor pressure deficit in a boreal deciduous forest. Tree Physiology 20: 725-734.

Hopkinson, C., Chasmer, L., Barr, A.G., Kljun, N., Black, T.A., and McCaughey, J.H. 2016. Monitoring boreal forest biomass and carbon storage change by integrating airborne laser scanning, biometry and eddy covariance data. Remote Sensing of Environment 181: 82-95.

Howard, E.A., Gower, S.T., Foley, J.A., and Kucharik, C.J. 2004. Effects of logging on carbon dynamics of a jack pine forest in Saskatchewan, Canada. Global Change Biology 10(8): 1267-1284.

Ireson, A.M., van der Kamp, G., Ferguson, G, Nachshon, U., and Wheater, H.S. 2012. Hydrogeological processes in seasonally frozen northern latitudes: understanding, gaps and challenges. Hydrogeology Journal 21: 53-66.

Ireson, A.M., Barr, A.G., Johnstone, J.F., Mamet, S.D., van der Kamp, G., Whitfield, C.J., Michel, N.L., North, R.L., Westbrook, C.J., DeBeer, C., Chun, K.P., Nazemi, A., and Sagin, J. 2015. The changing water cycle: the Boreal Plains ecozone of Western Canada. WIREs Water 2015.

Jarvis, P.G., Massheder, J.M., Hale, S.E., Moncrieff, J.B., Rayment, M., and Scott, S.L. 1997. Seasonal variation of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy exchanges of a boreal black spruce forest. Journal of Geophysical Research 102(D24): 28953-28966.

Ju, W., Chen, J.M., Black, T.A., Barr, A.G., and McCaughey, H. 2010. Spatially simulating changes of soil water content and their effects on carbon sequestration in Canada’s forests and wetlands. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 62(3): 140-159.

Kalyn, A.L., and Van Rees, K.C.J. 2006. Contribution of fine roots to ecosystem biomass and net primary production in black spruce, aspen, and jack pine forests in Saskatchewan. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 140: 236-243.

Keenan, T.F., Baker, I., Barr, A.G., Ciasis, P., Davis, K., Dietze, M., Dragoni, D., Gough, C.M., Grant, R., et al. 2012. Terrestrial biosphere model performance for inter-annual variability of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Global Change Biology 18: 1971-1987.

Kimball, J. S., Thornton, P.E., White, M.A., and Running, S.W. 1997. Simulating forest productivity and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange in the BOREAS study region. Tree Physiology 17: 589-599.

Kljun, N., Black, TA, Griffis, T.J., Barr, A.G., Gaumont-Guay, D., Morgenstern, K., McCaughey, J.H., and Nesic, Z. 2006. Response of net ecosystem productivity of three boreal forest stands to drought. Ecosystems 9: 1128-1144.

Krishnan, P., Black, T.A., Barr, A.G., Grant, N.J., Gaumont-Guay, D., and Nesic, Z. 2008. Factors controlling the interannual variability in the carbon balance of a southern boreal black spruce forest. Journal of Geophysical Research 113: D09109.

Krishnan, P, Black, T.A., Grant, N.J., Barr, A.G., Hogg, E.H., Jassal, R.S., and Morgenstern, K. 2006. Impact of changing soil moisture distribution on net ecosystem productivity of a boreal aspen forest during and following severe drought. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 139: 208-223.

Kucharik, C.J., Norman, J.M., and Gower, S.T. 1999. Characterization of radiation regimes in nonrandom forest canopies: theory, measurements, and a simplified modeling approach. Tree Physiology 19(11): 695-706.

Lavigne, M.B., and Ryan, M.G. 1997. Growth and maintenance respiration rates of aspen, black spruce and jack pine stems at northern and southern BOREAS sites. Tree Physiology 17(8-9): 543-551.

Lerdau, M., Litvak, M., Palmer, P., Monson, R. 1997. Controls over monoterpene emissions from boreal forest conifers. Tree Physiology 17(8-9): 563-569.

Magagi, R., Berg, A.A., Goїta, K., Bélair, S., Jackson, T.J., Toth, B., Walker, A., NcNairn, H., O’Neill, P.E., et al. 2013. Canadian experiment for soil moisture in 2010 (CanEx-SM10): Overview and preliminary results. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 51: 347-363.

Mahrt, L., and Vickers, D. 2002. Relationship of area-averaged carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes to atmospheric variables. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 112(3-4): 195-202.

Malhi, Y., Baldocchi, D.D., and Jarvis, P.G. 1999. The carbon balance of tropical, temperate and boreal forests. Plant, Cell and Environment 22(6): 715-740.

Mamet, S.D., Chun, K.P., Metsaranta, J.M., Barr, A.G., and Johnstone, J.F.  2015. Tree rings provide early warning signals of jack pine mortality across a moisture gradient in the southern boreal forest. Environmental Research Letters 10.

Margolis, H.A., and Ryan, M.G. 1997. A physiological basis for biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the boreal forest: an overview. Tree Physiology 17: 491-499.

Melas, E.K., Sulla-Menashe, D., Gray, J.M., Black, T.A., Morin, T.H., Richardson, A.D., and Friedl, M.A. 2016. Multisite analysis of land surface phenology in North American temperate and boreal deciduous forests from Landsat. Remote Sensing Environment 186: 452-464.

Mo, X., Chen, J.M., Ju, W., and Black, T.A. 2008. Optimization of ecosystem model parameters through assimilating eddy covariance flux data with an ensemble Kalman filter. Ecological Modelling 217: 157-173.

Morgenstern, K., Black, T.A., Humphreys, E.R., Griffis, T.J., Drewitt, G.B., Cai, T., Nesic, Z., Spittlehouse, D.L. and Livingston N.J. 2004. Sensitivity and uncertainty of the carbon balance of a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forest during an El Niño/La Niña Cycle. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 123: 201-219.

Nakamura, R., and Mahrt, L. 2001. Similarity theory for local and spatially averaged momentum fluxes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 108: 265-279.

Nichol, C.J., Huemmrich, K.F., Black, T.A., Jarvis, P.G., Walthall, C.L., Grace, J., and Hall, F.G. 2000. Remote sensing of photosynthetic-light-use efficiency of boreal forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 101: 131-142.

Ni-Meister, W., and Gao, H. 2011. Assessing the impacts of vegetation heterogeneity on energy fluxes and snowmelt in boreal forests. Journal of Plant Ecology 4: 37-47.

O'Connell, K.E.B., Gower, S.T., and Norman, J.M. 2003. Comparison of net primary production and light-use dynamics of two boreal black spruce forest communities. Ecosystems 6: 236-247.

Pinno, B.D., Wilson, S.D., Steinaker, D.F., Van Rees, K.C.J., and McDonald, S.A. 2010. Fine root dynamics of trembling aspen in boreal forest and aspen parkland in central Canada. Annals of Forest Science 67: 710.

Ponton, S., Flanagan, L.B., Alstad, K.P., Johnson, B.G., Morgenstern, K., Kljun, N., Black, T.A., and Barr, A.G. 2006. Comparison of ecosystem water-use efficiency among Douglas-fir forest, aspen forest and grassland using eddy covariance and carbon isotope techniques. Global Change Biology 12: 294-310.

Rayment, M.B., and Jarvis, P.G. 1999. Seasonal gas exchange of black spruce using an automatic branch bag system. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29(10): 1528-1538.

Rayment, M.B., Loustau, D., and Jarvis, P.G. 2002. Photosynthesis and respiration of black spruce at three organizational scales: shoot, branch and canopy. Tree Physiology 22(4): 219-229.

Richardson, A.D., Anderson, R.S., Arain, M.A, Barr, A.G., Bohrer, G., Chen, G., Chen, J.M, Ciasis, P., et al. 2011. Terrestrial biosphere models need better representation of vegetation phenology: results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis. Global Change Biology 18: 566-584.

Roujean, J.L. 1999. Measurements of PAR transmittance within boreal forest stands during BOREAS. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 93(1): 1-6.

Sandmeier, S., and Deering, D.W. 1999. Structure analysis and classification of boreal forests using airborne hyperspectral BRDF data from ASAS. Remote Sensing of Environment 69(3): 281-295.  

Saugier, B., Granier, A., Pontailler, J.Y., Dufrene, E., and Baldocchi, D.D. 1997. Transpiration of a boreal pine forest measured by branch bag, sap flow and micrometeorological methods. Tree Physiology 17(8-9): 511-519.

Sellers, P.J., Hall, F.G., Kelly, R.D., Black, T.A., Baldocchi, D., Berry, J., Ryan, M., Ranson, K.J., Crill, P.M., Lettenmaier, D.P., Margolis, H., Cihlar, J., Newcomer, J., Fitzjarrald, D., Jarvis, P.G., Gower, S.T., Halliwell, D., Williams, D., Goodison, B., Wickland, D.E., and Guertin, F.E. 1997. BOREAS in 1997: Experiment overview, scientific results and future directions. Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 28731-28770.

Sonnentag, O. 2008. Spatially explicit simulation of peatland hydrology and carbon dioxide exchange (PhD thesis). Available at

Sonnentag, O., van der Kamp, G., Barr, A.G., and Chens, J.M. 2010. On the relationship between water table depth and water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes in a minerotrophic fen. Global Change Biology 16: 1762-1776.

Steele, S. J., Gower, S.T., Vogel, J.G., and Norman, J.M. 1997. Root mass, net primary production and turnover in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. Tree Physiology 17(8-9): 577-587.

Stephens, J.J., Black, T.A., Jassal, R.S., Nesic, Z., Grant, N.J., Barr, A.G., Helgason, W.D., Richardson, A.D., Johnson, M.S., and Christen, A. 2018. Effects of forest tent caterpillar defoliation on carbon and water fluxes in a boreal aspen stand. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 253-254: 176-189.

Striegl, R.G., and Wickland, K.P. 1998. Effects of a clear-cut harvest on soil respiration in a jack pine – lichen woodland. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28(4): 534-539.

Streigl, R.G., and Wickland, K.P. 2001. Soil respiration and photsynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31(9): 1540-1550.

Sullivan, J.H., Bovard, B.D., and Middleton, E.M. 1997. Variability in leaf-level CO2 and water fluxes in Pinus banksiana and Picea mariana in Saskatchewan. Tree Physiology 17(8-9): 553-561.

Sulman, B.J., Desai, A.R., Saliendra, N.Z., Lafleur, P.M., Flanagan, L.B., Sonnentag, O., Mackay, D.S., Barr, A.G., and van der Kamp, G. 2010. CO2 fluxes at northern fens and bogs have opposite responses to inter-annual fluctuations in water table. Geophysical Research Letters 37: L19702.

Swanson, R.V., and Flanagan, L.B. 2001. Environmental regulation of carbon dioxide exchange at the forest floor in a boreal black spruce ecosystem. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 108(3): 165-181.

Turner, D.P., Urbanski, S., Bremer, D., Wofsy, S.C., Meyers, T., Gower, S.T., and Gregory, M. 2003. A cross-biome comparison of daily light use efficiency for gross primary production. Global Change Biology 9(3): 383-395.

Wang, W., Peng, C., Kneeshaw, D.D., Larocque, G.R., Song, X., and Zhou, X. 2012. Quantifying the effects of climate change and harvesting on carbon dynamics of boreal aspen and jack pine forests using the TRIPLEX-Management model. Forest Ecology and Management 281: 152-162.

Whitehead, D., and Gower, S.T. 2001. Photosynthesis and light-use efficiency by plants in a Canadian boreal forest ecosystem. Tree Physiology 21(12-13): 925-929.

Wu, C., and Chen, J.M. 2013. Deriving a new phenological indicator of interannual net carbon exchange in contrasting boreal deciduous and evergreen forests. Ecological Indicators 24: 113-119.

Wu, C., Chen, J.M., Black, T.A., Price, D.T., Kurz, W.A., Desai, A.R., Gonsamo, A., Jassal, R.S., Gough, C.M., et al. 2013. Interannual variability of net ecosystem productivity in forests is explained by carbon flux phenology in autumn. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22(8): 994-1006.

Wu, C., Chen, J.M., Gonsamo, A., Price, D.T., Black, T.A., and Kurz, A. 2012. Interannual variability of net carbon exchange is related to the lag between the end-dates of net carbon uptake and photosynthesis: Evidence from long records at two contrasting forest stands. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 164:29-38.

Wu, C., Gaumont-Guay, D., Black, T.A., Jassal, R.S., Xu, S., Chen, J.M., and Gonsamo, A. Soil respiration mapped by exclusively use of MODIS data for forest landscapes of Saskatchewan, Canada. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 94: 80-90.

Zha, T., Barr, A.G., Black, T.A., McCaughey, J.H., Bhatti, J., Hawthorne, I., Krishnan, P., Kidston, J., Saigusa, N., Shashkov, A., and Nesic, Z. 2008. Carbon sequestration in boreal jack pine stands following harvesting. Global Change Biology 15: 1475-1487.

Zha, T., Barr, A.G., van der Kamp, G., Black, T.A., McCaughey, J.H., and Flanagan, L.B. 2010. Interannual variation of evapotranspiration from forest and grassland ecosystems in western Canada in relation to drought. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 1476-1484.

Zhang, Q., Middleton, E.M., Margolis, H.A., Drolet, G.G., Barr, A.G., and Black, T.A. 2009. Can a satellite-derived estimate of the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll (FAPARchl) improve predictions of light-use efficiency and ecosystem photosynthesis for a boreal aspen forest? Remote Sensing of Environment 113: 880-888.

Zhang, Y., Wang, S., Barr, A.G., and Black, T.A. 2008. Impact of snow cover on soil temperature and its simulation in a boreal aspen forest. Cold Regions Science and Technology 52: 355-370.